Monogamy became the guiding principle of Western marriages between the sixth and ninth centuries, Coontz said. In the context of the Protestant Reformation, the role of registering marriages and establishing the rules of marriage passed to the state, reflecting Martin Luther`s view that marriage was a „worldly thing.” [351] In the 17th century, many European Protestant countries had state participation in marriage. In the mid-20th century, Western countries enacted a legal right of two married partners to divorce by mutual consent. In the United States, no-fault divorce was first enacted in California in 1969, and the last state to legalize it was New York in 1989. [293] For the Anglo-Saxons and early tribal groups in Britain, marriage was a matter of relationships – but not in the modern sense. The Anglo-Saxons saw marriage as a strategic tool for establishing diplomatic and commercial ties, says Stephanie Coontz, author of Marriage, A History: How Love Conquered Marriage. „You have built peaceful relationships, commercial relationships, mutual obligations with others by marrying them,” Coontz says. At the end of the 19th century, the various states began to destroy de facto marriages. Eventually, states decided to exercise considerable control over who was allowed to marry within the state`s borders.

In some jurisdictions, the parties to a marriage are „jointly and severally” liable for the debts of the marriage. This has a foundation in a traditional legal concept called the „doctrine of necessities,” according to which, in a heterosexual marriage, a husband was responsible for providing the necessary things for his wife. If this is the case, a shareholder may be sued to collect a debt that he has not expressly incurred. Critics of this practice point out that debt collection agencies can abuse it by claiming an unreasonably wide range of debts as wedding expenses. The defence costs and burden of proof are then imposed on the non-entrepreneur to prove that the costs are not the fault of the family. The respective maintenance obligations, both during and after marriage, are regulated in most jurisdictions; Support is one such method. The mythological origin of Chinese marriage is a story about Nüwa and Fu Xi, who invented the right marriage procedures after their marriage. In ancient Chinese society, people with the same surname should consult their family trees before marriage to reduce the potential risk of unintentional incest. Marrying maternal parents was not generally considered incest. Families sometimes married from one generation to the next. Over time, the Chinese have become more geographically mobile.

The individuals remained members of their biological family. When a couple died, husband and wife were buried separately in the cemetery of the respective clan. In a maternal marriage, a man would become a son-in-law living in the woman`s house. Although a society can be classified as polygynous, not all marriages are necessarily polygynous; Monogamous marriages may indeed predominate. Anthropologist Robin Fox attributes its success as a social support system to this flexibility: „This has often led – given gender imbalances, higher male infant mortality, shorter life expectancy of men, loss of men in wartime, etc. – that women are often left without financial support from their husbands. To correct this situation, women had to be killed in childbirth, remain unmarried, prostitute themselves or be skimmed into celibate religious orders. Polygamous systems have the advantage that, like Mormons, they can promise every woman a home and a family. [24] Marriages in the West were originally contracts between the families of two partners, with the Catholic Church and the state staying away from them. In 1215, the Catholic Church decreed that partners had to post public commandments or notices of impending marriage in a local parish to reduce the frequency of invalid marriages (the Church removed this requirement in the 1980s). Nevertheless, until the 1500s, the Church accepted a couple`s word that they had exchanged marriage vows without the need for witnesses or corroborating evidence. Despite its current use, the good old marriage certificate has not always been grafted onto the carpet of civilized society.

Fox argues that „the main difference between polygamy and monogamy could be expressed as follows: while plural matching occurs in both systems, under polygyny, multiple unions can be recognized as legal marriages, while under monogamy, only one of the unions is so recognized. However, it is often difficult to draw a clear line between the two. [27] Evidence suggests that the marriage is about 4,350 years old and that the first registered marriage took place in 2350 BC. Marriage became a popular institution among the ancient Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. If a marriage is consummated and consummated by a state institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and duties inherent in marriage in the eyes of the State. Some countries do not recognize religious marriages celebrated locally and require separate civil marriages for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage exists in some countries with a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad may not be recognized if they have been contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular and religious legal system, such as Lebanon and Israel, there is no locally consummated civil marriage in the country, which prevents interfaith marriages and various other marriages that contradict religious laws from being contracted in the country. However, civil marriages contracted abroad may be recognized by the State, even if they are contrary to religious laws. In the case of marriage recognition in Israel, for example, this includes recognition not only of interreligious civil marriages contracted abroad, but also of same-sex civil marriages abroad. Social connections give people a sense of identity, purpose, belonging, and support.

[289] Simple marriage, as well as the quality of marriage, are associated with different health standards. [287] Approximately 45% of marriages in the United Kingdom[294] and, according to a 2009 study, 46% of marriages in the United States. [295] end in divorce. Under the ancient Hebrews, marriage was a domestic affair, not a religious ceremony; The participation of a priest or rabbi was not required. [278] Today, most people realize that no matter how a couple marries, it is a bond between two people that involves responsibility and regularity as well as commitment and challenge. This concept of marriage has remained constant over the centuries. The exchange of a ring in which it has no end; represents eternity. Modern Christianity bases its views on marriage on the teachings of Jesus and the apostle Paul. [227] Many of the largest Christian denominations regard marriage as a sacrament, a sacred institution, or a covenant.

[228] In some cultures, especially in countries such as Turkey, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Morocco, Nepal, dowry is still expected. In India, thousands of dowry-related deaths have occurred each year,[89][90] To address this issue, several jurisdictions have passed laws restricting or prohibiting dowry (see India`s Dowry Act). In Nepal, dowry was declared illegal in 2009. [91] Some authors believe that giving and receiving a dowry reflects status and even efforts to climb the social ladder. [92] In Sunni Islam, marriage must take place in the presence of at least two reliable witnesses, with the consent of the bride`s guardian and the consent of the groom. After the marriage, the couple can consummate the marriage. In order to create a marriage `urf, it is sufficient for a man and a woman to declare the intention to marry and recite the necessary words in front of a suitable Muslim. The wedding reception usually follows, but can take place days or months later, whenever the couple and their families wish. However, the marriage cannot be concealed, as it is considered a public announcement due to the requirement for witnesses. [264] [265] [266] [267] „What marriage had in common was that it wasn`t really about the relationship between man and woman,” said Stephanie Coontz, author of „Marriage, a History: How Love Conquered Marriage” (Penguin Books, 2006). It was a way to get in-laws, form alliances, and expand the family workforce. Moreover, in the organization of the state widely known as the Church of England, priests, bishops, and other clergy had a say in the approval of marriage.

Wandering bards sang about love in the Middle Ages and Shakespeare`s Romeo and Juliet performed it on stage, but it wasn`t until Victorian times that it was accepted as the basis for marriage. „Victorians were really, really invested in the idea of love – that marriage should actually be based on love or companionship,” says Jennifer Phegley, author of Courtship and Marriage in Victorian England. Nevertheless, marriage was not a matter of equality until about 50 years ago. At that time, women and men had unique rights and duties in marriage. For example, in the United States, marital rape was legal in many states until the 1970s, and women often couldn`t open credit cards in their own names, Coontz said. Women have the right to help from their husbands, but do not have the right to decide on the distribution of common property. And if a woman was injured or killed, a man could sue the party responsible for depriving him of „home services,” when women didn`t have the same option, Coontz said.